Pediatric Endocrinology is a part of Endocrinology and includes endocrine disorders seen in children and adolescents. The common endocrine disorders seen in children are related to thyroid, growth and puberty. In addition, obesity is also becoming a frequent presentation in pediatric endocrine clinics. Thyroid disorders can present at birth as congenital hypothyroidism, hypothyroidism in children and adolescents or as goiter in adolescents. Some children may present with early onset of menstrual cycles, breast enlargement in girls or as early onset of pubic hair in boys and girls(precocious puberty) or as delay in onset of menstrual cycles in girls or secondary sexual characters in boys(delayed puberty).
The most common cause of short stature are CDGP (Constitutional Delay in Growth and Puberty), FSS (Familial Short Stature), Hypothyroidism, Growth Hormone Deficiency and Turner Syndrome. Vitamin D Deficiency in children may present with bone pains or rickets. Although obesity is a common presentation, endocrine causes of obesity are rare and include Prader Willi Syndrome, PseudoHypoparathyroidism, Bardet Biedl Syndrome, Cushing Syndrome etc. Hypertension in children is often secondary to renal or endocrine causes like pheochromocytoma, congenital adrenal hyperplasia, hyperadlosteronism, cushing syndrome etc. Micropenis is also one common presentation in children and could be due to growth hormone deficiency or defects in androgen biosynthesis or action. Children may also present to Endocrinologist with undescended testis, genital ambiguity or gynaecomastia.